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Christmas Market

Christmas or Christmas Day (Old English: Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed most commonly on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is prepared for by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night; in some traditions, Christmastide includes an Octave. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated culturally by a large number of non-Christian people, and is an integral part of the holiday season.

The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world.

While the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, by the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25, a date later adopted in the East. Today, most Christians celebrate Christmas on the date of December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, which is also the calendar in near-universal use in the secular world. However, some Eastern churches celebrate Christmas on the December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which currently corresponds to January 7 in the Gregorian calendar, the day after the Western Christian Church celebrates the Epiphany. This is not a disagreement over the date of Christmas as such, but rather a disagreement over which calendar should be used to determine the day that is December 25. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after the day on which early Christians believed that Jesus was conceived, or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse identifying Jesus as the "Sun of righteousness".

  1. ^ a b Christmas as a Multi-faith Festival—BBC News. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
  2. ^ a b "In the U.S., Christmas Not Just for Christians". Gallup, Inc. December 24, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2012. 
  3. ^ Paul Gwynne, World Religions in Practice (John Wiley & Sons 2011 ISBN 978-1-44436005-9). John Wiley & Sons. September 7, 2011. ISBN 9781444360059. 
  4. ^ a b Ramzy, John. "The Glorious Feast of Nativity: 7 January? 29 Kiahk? 25 December?". Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  5. ^ Kelly, Joseph F (2010). Joseph F. Kelly, The Feast of Christmas (Liturgical Press 2010 ISBN 978-0-81463932-0). ISBN 9780814639320. 
  6. ^ Jansezian, Nicole. "10 things to do over Christmas in the Holy Land". The Jerusalem Post. ...the Armenians in Jerusalem – and only in Jerusalem – celebrate Christmas on January 19... 
  7. ^ Christmas, Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
    Archived 2009-10-31.
  8. ^ Martindale, Cyril Charles."Christmas". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
  9. ^ Several branches of Eastern Christianity that use the Julian calendar also celebrate on December 25 according to that calendar, which is now January 7 on the Gregorian calendar. Armenian Churches observed the nativity on January 6 even before the Gregorian calendar originated. Most Armenian Christians use the Gregorian calendar, still celebrating Christmas Day on January 6. Some Armenian churches use the Julian calendar, thus celebrating Christmas Day on January 19 on the Gregorian calendar, with January 18 being Christmas Eve.
  10. ^
  11. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape | Christians". Pew Research Center. December 18, 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Christmas Strongly Religious For Half in U.S. Who Celebrate It". Gallup, Inc. December 24, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2012. 
  13. ^ Forbes, Bruce David (October 1, 2008). Christmas: A Candid History. University of California Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780520258020. In 567 the Council of Tours proclaimed that the entire period between Christmas and Epiphany should be considered part of the celebration, creating what became known as the twelve days of Christmas, or what the English called Christmastide. On the last of the twelve days, called Twelfth Night, various cultures developed a wide range of additional special festivities. The variation extends even to the issue of how to count the days. If Christmas Day is the first of the twelve days, then Twelfth Night would be on January 5, the eve of Epiphany. If December 26, the day after Christmas, is the first day, then Twelfth Night falls on January 6, the evening of Epiphany itself. After Christmas and Epiphany were in place, on December 25 and January 6, with the twelve days of Christmas in between, Christians gradually added a period called Advent, as a time of spiritual preparation leading up to Christmas. 
  14. ^ Senn, Frank C. (2012). Introduction to Christian Liturgy. Fortress Press. p. 145. ISBN 9781451424331. We noted above that late medieval calendars introduced a reduced three-day octave for Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost that were retained in Roman Catholic and passed into Lutheran and Anglican calendars. 
  15. ^ Canadian Heritage – Public holidays – Government of Canada. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  16. ^ 2009 Federal Holidays – U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  17. ^ Bank holidays and British Summer time – HM Government. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  18. ^ Why I celebrate Christmas, by the world's most famous atheist – Daily Mail. December 23, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
  19. ^ Non-Christians focus on secular side of Christmas – Sioux City Journal. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
  20. ^ West's Federal Supplement. West Publishing Company. 1990. While the Washington and King birthdays are exclusively secular holidays, Christmas has both secular and religious aspects. 
  21. ^ "Poll: In a changing nation, Santa endures", Associated Press, December 22, 2006. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
  22. ^ [1] Sourcebook for Sundays, Seasons, and Weekdays 2011: The Almanac for Pastoral Liturgy by Corinna Laughlin, Michael R. Prendergast, Robert C. Rabe, Corinna Laughlin, Jill Maria Murdy, Therese Brown, Mary Patricia Storms, Ann E. Degenhard, Jill Maria Murdy, Ann E. Degenhard, Therese Brown, Robert C. Rabe, Mary Patricia Storms, Michael R. Prendergast – LiturgyTrainingPublications, March 26, 2010 – page 29
  23. ^ The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 12: Commemorations of the Martyrs – The Tertullian Project. 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  24. ^ Roll, Susan K., Toward the Origins of Christmas, (Peeters Publishers, 1995), p.133.
  25. ^ a b McGowan, Andrew. "How December 25 Became Christmas". Bible Review & Bible History Daily. Biblical Archaeology Society. Retrieved February 24, 2011. 
  26. ^ a b Tighe, William J. (2003). "Calculating Christmas". Touchstone 16 (10). 
  27. ^ Robert Laurence Moore (1994). Selling God: American religion in the marketplace of culture. Oxford University Press. p. 205. When the Catholic Church in the fourth century singled out December 25 as the birth date of Christ, it tried to stamp out the saturnalia common to the solstice season. 
  28. ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia. Merriam Webster. 2000. p. 1211. Christian missionaries frequently sought to stamp out pagan practices by building churches on the sites of pagan shrines or by associated Christian holidays with pagan rituals (eg. linking -Christmas with the celebration of the winter solstice). 
  29. ^ Newton, Isaac, Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733). Ch. XI. A sun connection is possible because Christians consider Jesus to be the "Sun of righteousness" prophesied in Malachi 4:2.
  30. ^ "Christmas", Encarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
    Roll, Susan K. (1995). Toward the Origins of Christmas. Peeters Publishers. p. 130. 


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